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THE BASICS

The Staff, Clefs, and Ledger Lines

Learn about the staff, treble clef, bass clef, ledger lines, and the grand staff.

Note Duration

Learn about five types of notes and how flags affect note duration.

Measures and Time Signature

Learn about measures and how many notes each can contain.

Rest Duration

Learn about the different types of rest.

Dots and Ties

Learn how dots and ties modify the duration of notes.

Steps and Accidentals

Learn about half steps, whole steps, and the different types of accidentals.

RHYTHM AND METER

Simple and Compound Meter

Learn how basic time signatures are classified.

Odd Meter

Learn about more complex time signatures.

SCALES AND KEY SIGNATURES

The Major Scale

Learn how to construct the major scale.

The Minor Scales

Learn how to construct the three different types of minor scales.

Scale Degrees

Learn the special names for each note of a scale.

Key Signatures

Learn about key signatures and the special ordering of accidentals.

Key Signature Calculation

Learn a method for mathematically calculating key signatures.

INTERVALS

Generic Intervals

Learn how two notes are measured on the staff.

Specific Intervals

Learn how two notes are specifically measured.

Writing Intervals

Learn how to correctly spell intervals with a three-step process.

Interval Inversion

Learn how to invert intervals.

CHORDS

Introduction to Chords

Learn about the four types of triads.

Triad Inversion

Learn how to invert triads.

Seventh Chords

Learn about the five types of seventh chords.

More Seventh Chords

Learn about three additional types of seventh chords used in popular music and jazz.

Seventh Chord Inversion

Learn how to invert seventh chords.

DIATONIC CHORDS

Diatonic Triads

Learn how a scale's notes form special triads.

Roman Numeral Analysis: Triads

Learn how diatonic triads are identified.

Diatonic Seventh Chords

Learn about the diatonic seventh chords of major and minor scales.

Roman Numeral Analysis: Seventh Chords

Learn how seventh chords are identified in Roman numeral analysis.

Composing with Minor Scales

Learn how the natural and harmonic minor scales combine.

Voicing Chords

Learn how composers arrange the notes of chords.

Analysis: O Canada

Watch an analysis of O Canada.

CHORD PROGRESSIONS

Nonharmonic Tones

Learn about the different types of nonharmonic tones.

Phrases and Cadences

Learn about musical phrases and the different types of cadences.

Circle Progressions

Learn about root motion and circular chord progressions.

Common Chord Progressions

Learn how chord progressions tend to follow a common pattern.

Triads in First Inversion

Learn how first inversion triads are commonly used in chord progressions.

Triads in Second Inversion

Learn how second inversion triads are commonly used in chord progressions.

Analysis: Auld Lang Syne

Watch an analysis of Auld Lang Syne.

NEAPOLITAN CHORDS

Building Neapolitan Chords

Learn how to build a Neapolitan chord.

Using Neapolitan Chords

Learn how a Neapolitan chord in first inversion is commonly used.

Analysis: Moonlight Sonata

Watch an analysis Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata (measures 49-51).