- Specific intervals are measured both on the staff and in half steps on the keyboard.
- As you learned in the previous lesson, C to D and C to Db are both generic seconds. Specifically, however, C to D is one half step larger than C to Db.
- Let's learn a few specific intervals.
- A major second is made up of two half steps.
- C to D is a major second since it is a generic second on the staff and two half steps on the keyboard.
- E to F# would be another example of a major second.
- A major third is made up of four half steps.
- C to E is a major third.
- E to G# is also a major third.
- A perfect fourth is made up of five half steps.
- C to F is a perfect fourth.
- F to Bb is also a perfect fourth.
- A perfect fifth is made up of seven half steps.
- C to G is a perfect fifth.
- B to F# is also a perfect fifth.
- A major sixth is made up of nine half steps.
- C to A is a major sixth.
- Eb to C is also a major sixth.
- A major seventh is made up of eleven half steps.
- C to B is a major seventh.
- D to C# is also a major seventh.
- Finally, a perfect eighth (or perfect octave) is made up of twelve half steps.
- C to C is a perfect eighth.
- The terms ''major'' and ''perfect'' refer to the interval's quality.
- Only seconds, thirds, sixths, and sevenths can have a major quality. Firsts, fourths, fifths, and eighths use ''perfect'' instead.
- Next, let's discuss minor intervals.
- A minor interval has one less half step than a major interval.
- For example: since C to E is a major third (4 half steps), C to Eb is a minor third (3 half steps).
- E to G is also a minor third (since E to G# is a major third).
- Since minor intervals transform from major intervals; only seconds, thirds, sixths, and sevenths can be ''minor''.
- An augmented interval has one more half step than a perfect interval.
- Since C to F is a perfect fourth (5 half steps), C to F# would be an augmented fourth (6 half steps).
- F to B is also an augmented fourth (since F to Bb is a perfect fourth).
- Major intervals can be augmented by adding a half step.
- For example, since C to A is a major sixth (9 half steps), C to A# is an augmented sixth (10 half steps).
- Db to B is also an augmented 6th (Since Db to Bb is a major sixth).
- A diminished interval has one less half step than a perfect interval.
- Since C to G is a perfect fifth (7 half steps), C to Gb would be a diminished fifth (6 half steps).
- B to F is also a diminished fifth (since B to F# is a perfect fifth).
- Minor intervals can also be diminished by subtracting a half step.
- Recall that C to B is a major seventh (11 half steps) and C to Bb is a minor seventh (10 half steps).
- C to Bbb is a diminished seventh (9 half steps).
- This chart shows the relationship among the different interval qualities.
- This chart shows the number of half steps that each specific interval contains.